BloodBank.MedMic.Haematology

Friday, January 25, 2008

MMIC PBL 2 (VIRUSES)

Types of Viruses

Possibility? (Y/N)

Reasons

Herpesvirus
- Herpes Simplex virus

No

- No animal reservoirs or vectors are involved with the human viruses
- Transmission is by contact with infected secretions

Poxviruses
- Orthopoxvirus
- Parapoxvirus
- Molluscipoxvirus
- Yatapoxvirus

No

- Control & eradication of smallpox
- Human infections are rare

Hepatitis viruses
- Hepatitis A (HAV)
- Hepatitis B (HBV)
- Hepatitis C (HCV)
- Hepatitis D (HDV)
- Hepatitis E (HEV)

Yes for HAV

No for
HBV, HCV, HDV

Transmission of hepatitis viruses:
- Person to person (HAV)
- Fecal-oral (HAV & HEV
- Perinatal (HBV)
- Blood & blood products (HBV, HCV, HDV)

Orthomyxoviruses
(Influenza virus)
- Influenza A (Inlcuding H5N1 avian influenza)
- Influenza B
- Influenza C

Yes

- Transmission through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated hands
- Transmitted avian virus to humans through pigs or through physical contact with infected birds
- Influenza A: Circulated in birds population, domestic poultry population
- Onset of symptoms: Varies from 1 to 4 days

Paramyxoviruses

- Measles (Rubeola) virus
- Mumps virus
- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
- Parainfluenza virus
- Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus)
- Nipah virus
- Hendra virus
- Rubella (German Measles Virus)

Yes for Measles (Rubeola) virus, Mumps virus, RSV, Parainfluenza virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rubella (German Measles Virus)

No for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus)

Measles (Rubeola) virus
- Highly infectious disease
- Incubation period/onset of symptoms: 8 to 12 days
- Transmission via respiratory route
- No animal reservoir
Mumps virus
- Contagious; Transmitted by direct contact, airborne droplets, or formites contaminated with saliva or urine.
- Appear in hot climates and temperate climates
Respiratory Syncytial virus
- Spread by large droplets and direct contact
- Survive on environmental surfaces for up to 6 hours
Parainfluenza virus
- Transmitted by direct person-to-person contact or by large-droplet aerosols
- Onset of illness: About 1 week
Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus)
- Transmission through contact with infected birds
- Eradication of Newcastle disease virus
Nipah virus
- Human-to-human transmission
- Transmission from fruit bats/flying foxes to human through infected pigs
Hendra virus
- Transmission via exposure to bat urine or birthing fluids
Rubella (German Measles Virus)
- Affects children and young adults
- Onset of symptoms: 7 to 9 days
- Transmitted by respiratory route
- Present in the urine, faeces and on the skin.

Picornaviruses
- Enteroviruses
1. Polioviruses
2. Coxsackie viruses
A & B
3. Echoviruses
- Rhinoviruses
- Aphthovirus


Yes for
coxsackie-viruses, echoviruses, rhinoviruses & aphthovirus

No for polioviruses

Coxsackieviruses
- Transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and respiratory aerosols
Echoviruses
- Transmitted through ingestion of fecally contaminated materials
Rhinoviruses
- Transmitted to susceptible individuals by direct contact or by aerosol particles
Aphthovirus
- Transmission via contact or ingestion
Poliovirus
- Humans are the only known reservoir of infection with poliovirus.
- Nowadays, most people have become immune early in life.

Arboviruses

Yes

- Transmission vector via mosquito Aedes aegypti
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

No

- Transmission of HIV:
- Blood & blood products
- Sexual contact Perinatal (mother to child)

Other Human Viruses
- Adenovirus
- Norwalk virus
- Calicivirus
- Filovirus

Yes

Adenovirus
- Spread by direct contact, fecal-oral route, respiratory droplets or by contaminated fomites
Norwalk virus and calivirus
- Both spread by fecal-oral route, food-borne, or person-to-person transmission
Filovirus
- Transmission via human/physical contact with infected bodily fluids although droplet infection can occur


References

1. Levinson, W. (2006). Review Of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. (9th ed.). US: The McGraw-Hill Company

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page > "microorganism name"

By Doreen & Dorothy
Tg01

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